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Laws Restricting Face-Coverings and Religious Symbols

Posted By jean.meslier On 2018-10-25 @ 22:52 In | 1 Comment

Compiled by David Rand

Updated 2019-07-07

Country
[Region]
Date Restrictions & Notes References
Algeria 2018
[Effective: 2018]
  • Ban on face coverings in public schools.
  • Decision by the Ministry of Education to enforce an existing rule (original date unknown).
Algeria 2018-10-18
  • Ban on face coverings worn by public servants while on duty.
  • Official ban on the full veil (niqab) in the workplace, published by the Direction Générale de la Fonction Publique (DGFP).
Austria 2017-05
[Effective: 2017-10]
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
  • Ban on the quran in public.
Austria 2018
[Effective: 2019-05]
  • Ban on hijabs in child-care centres.
  • Ban on hijabs in primary schools.
Belgium 2011-06-01
[Effective: 2011-07-23]
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
Bulgaria 2016-09
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
Cameroon 2015-07
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
  • The ban was adopted following suicide bombings by people wearing veils.
  • The ban is now active in five of the country’s provinces.
Canada
[Quebec]
2017-10-18
  • Ban on face coverings in public services.
  • The ban is extremely weak because of exceptions allowed by the law.
  • The ban (section 10 of Bill 62) has been temporarily suspended by Quebec Superior Court as of December 2017.
Canada
[Quebec]
2019-06-16
  • Ban on religious symbols worn by public servants in positions of authority, including public school teachers.
  • Ban on face coverings in public services.
Chad 2015-06
  • Ban on face coverings everywhere.
China
[Xinjiang]
2017
  • Ban on face coverings everywhere.
  • Ban on Islamic beards everywhere.
Congo-Brazzaville 2015
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
  • Congo-Brazzaville’s official name is Republic of the Congo, not to be confused with Congo-Kinshasa or the Democratic Republic of the Congo whose capital is Kinshasa.
Denmark 2008
  • Ban on religious symbols worn by judges in courtrooms.
Denmark 2018-05-31
[Effective: 2018-08-01]
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
Egypt 2016
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
France 2004
  • Ban on religious symbols in public schools.
France 2010-10-11
[Effective: 2011-04-11]
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
  • France was the first European country to institute a nationalwide ban on the full veil in public.
France 2016
[Repealed: 2016-08-26]
  • Ban on the burkini in public.
  • The burkini ban was overthrown by France’s highest administrative court.
France 2019-05
  • Ban on religious symbols worn by facilitators of extracurricular activities.
Germany 2017-04
  • Ban on face coverings worn by public servants while on duty.
Germany
[Bavaria]
2017-02
  • Ban on face coverings worn by public servants while on duty.
Iran 1936
[Repealed: 1979]
  • Ban on hijabs everywhere.
  • Ban on chadors everywhere.
  • Ban instituted by Pahlavi ruler Reza Shah.
Italy
[Some northern regions]
1975
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
Italy
[Lombardy]
2015-12
[Effective: 2016-01-01]
  • Ban on face coverings in public services.
  • Ban on the burkini in public.
Malaysia 1994
  • Ban on face coverings in public services.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hijab_by_country#Malaysia
Morocco 2017-01
  • Ban on face coverings everywhere.
Morocco 2018
  • Ban on face coverings everywhere, manufacture and sale also forbidden.
  • It is henceforth forbidden to manufacture, sell or wear the burqa, a traditional article of clothing worn by the Pashtun tribes of Afghanistan.
Netherlands 2016-11-29
[Effective: 2018-06]
  • Ban on face coverings in public services.
  • More precisely: Ban on wearing clothing that completely covers the face or only shows the eyes, in educational institutions, on public transport, in government institutions and hospitals.
  • Senate (upper house) approval obtained 2018-06, which is final hurdle before becoming law.
Niger
[Diffa]
2015
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
  • Diffa is a southern region of the country, bordering on a part of Nigeria where Boko Haram is active.
Russia
[Stavropol]
2013-07
  • Ban on hijabs everywhere.
  • July, 2013 is the date that Russia’s Supreme Court upheld the ban.
Spain
[Barcelona and other parts of Catalonia]
2010
[Repealed: 2013]
  • Ban on face coverings in public services.
  • The ban was adopted only in some parts of Catalonia.
  • The repeal occurred only in some parts of Catalonia and is maintained in others.
Sri Lanka 2019-04-28
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
Switzerland 2016-09
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
  • This measure, which would apply nationwide, has not yet become law.
Switzerland
[Canton of Geneva]
2019-02-10
  • Ban on religious symbols worn by public servants while on duty.
Switzerland
[Canton of Saint-Gall]
2018-09-23
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
Switzerland
[Canton of Ticino]
2013-09
[Effective: 2016-07-01]
  • Ban on face coverings in public.
Tunisia 1987-08-12
  • Ban on Islamic veils worn by public servants while on duty.
Tunisia 2019-07-05
  • Ban on face coverings in public services.
Turkey 1923
[Repealed: 2013]
  • Ban on religious symbols worn by public servants while on duty.
  • The ban applied to all veils, including the hijab, i.e. not just those which cover the face.
  • The repeal applied to the hijab, but the ban remained in effect in the judiciary, military and police.
  • The repeal was extended to the police in August 2016, so policewomen may now wear the hijab.
United States of America 1837
[Repealed: 2019]
  • Ban on head coverings worn by members in the legislative assembly.
  • The repeal was announced in late 2018 and is expected to become effective in 2019.
United States of America
[Nebraska]
1919
[Repealed: 2017]
  • Ban on religious symbols in public schools.
United States of America
[Pennsylvania]
1895
  • Ban on religious symbols in public schools.
  • It is expected that the ban will be repealed very soon.

References

  1. Agence France-Presse, Dutch approve partial ban on burqa wearing in public [22]
  2. Agence France-Presse, Full veil banned in Niger over Boko Haram fears [23]
  3. Agence France-Presse, Genève interdit aux employés publics de porter des signes religieux [28]
  4. Agence France-Presse, Le voile bientôt banni de l’école en Autriche [5]
  5. Agence France-Presse, Le voile désormais autorisé dans le Congrès américain [35]
  6. Agence France-Presse, Stockholm, Le voile intégral interdit dans l’espace public au Danemark [15]
  7. Agerholm, Harriet, Morocco bans burqa over security concerns [19]
  8. AlgerieMondeInfos, Maroc : interdiction de la fabrication, la vente et le port de la burqa [20]
  9. ATS, St-Gall devient le deuxième canton à interdire la burqa [29]
  10. Ayoye Monde, L’Égypte songe maintenant bannir la burqa [37]
  11. BBC, The Islamic veil across Europe [14]
  12. Blair, David, Why West Africa’s Muslim-majority states are banning the burqa [24]
  13. Canada, Parlement, Le maintien de l’ordre et le décorum [38]
  14. Canada, Parliament, Rules of Order and Decorum [39]
  15. CNEWS, L’Égypte veut interdire le niqab dans les lieux publics [40]
  16. Dearden, Lizzie, Austrian parliament passes burqa ban seeing Muslim women face £130 fines for wearing full-face veils [4]
  17. Dearden, Lizzie, Burqa bans: After Angela Merkel calls for prohibition on full veils, what is the situation in other European countries? [9]
  18. Dearden, Lizzie, China bans burqas and ‘abnormal’ beards in Muslim province of Xinjiang [13]
  19. Dearden, Lizzie, German parliament votes in favour of partial burqa ban [17]
  20. Dearden, Lizzie, German state bans burqa in schools and government buildings as part of ‘Christian values’ [18]
  21. Devaney, Beulah Maud, Listen to what Muslim women in the Netherlands say about the Dutch burqa ban and you’ll realise why it won’t stop radicalisation [21]
  22. [other], ECOWAS LEADERS SEEK TO BAN WEARING OF HIJABS (FULL FACE VEILS) [25]
  23. Éditeur officiel du Québec, Loi sur la laïcité de l’État [11]
  24. Evans, Stephen, Do Burqa Bans Do More Harm Than Good? [41]
  25. Foster, Alice, Where in the world are the burka and niqab banned? [7]
  26. franceinfo avec Reuters, La Tunisie interdit le port du niqab dans les établissements publics [32]
  27. Govan, Fiona, Spain overturns Islamic face veil ban [26]
  28. HuffPost Algérie, Le directeur général des douanes rappelle que le port du voile est interdit selon la réglementation en vigueur [42]
  29. Huffpost Tunisie, La présidence du gouvernement interdit l’entrée aux bâtiments publics aux personnes dont le visage serait couvert [31]
  30. Johnson, Boris, Denmark has got it wrong. Yes, the burka is oppressive and ridiculous – but that’s still no reason to ban it [43]
  31. Klijnman, Carline, Islamic Veil and Distribution of Quran Banned in Austria [3]
  32. Krasimirov, Angel, Bulgaria bans full-face veils in public places [8]
  33. Maithripala Sirisena, Sri Lanka bans any form of face covering that will hinder the identification of a person under emergency regulations. [27]
  34. Makedhi, Madjid, Interdiction du niqab à l’école [1]
  35. Namazie, Maryam, Britain should ban the niqab [44]
  36. Namazie, Maryam, Neither Veil nor Submission [45]
  37. Oltermann, Philip, Austria approves headscarf ban in primary schools [6]
  38. Québec Official Publisher, An Act respecting the laicity of the State [12]
  39. Reuters Staff, Barcelona to ban veil in public buildings [46]
  40. RT, Interdire la burqa ? Un canton suisse vote massivement pour [30]
  41. Sanghani, Radhika, Burka bans: The countries where Muslim women can’t wear veils [10]
  42. Shérazade, Le gouvernement Algérien interdit le voile intégral « niqab » dans les lieux de travail [2]
  43. Sioui, Marie-Michèle, Québec renonce une fois de plus à défendre sa loi sur la neutralité religieuse [47]
  44. Smith, Roff, Why Turkey Lifted Its Ban on the Islamic Headscarf [33]
  45. Stickings, Tim, EGYPT considers banning the burqa in crackdown against Islamic extremists [48]
  46. Vignal, François, Sorties scolaires : le Sénat vote pour l’interdiction du port du voile pour les mères accompagnatrices [16]
  47. Willingham, A. J., New Muslim congresswoman will seek to allow religious headwear in the House [34]


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URLs in this post:

[1] Interdiction du niqab à l’école: https://www.elwatan.com/edition/actualite/interdiction-du-niqab-a-lecole-08-09-2018

[2] Le gouvernement Algérien interdit le voile intégral « niqab » dans les lieux de travail: https://observalgerie.com/actualite-algerie/societe/le-gouvernement-algerien-interdit-le-voile-integral-niqab-dans-les-lieux-de-travail/

[3] Islamic Veil and Distribution of Quran Banned in Austria: https://conatusnews.com/islamic-veil-qurans-banned-austria/

[4] Austrian parliament passes burqa ban seeing Muslim women face £130 fines for wearing full-face veils: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/austria-burqa-ban-parliament-fines-150-full-face-veils-muslim-islam-niqabs-public-transport-a7742981.html

[5] Le voile bientôt banni de l’école en Autriche: https://www.lematin.ch/monde/voile-bientot-banni-ecole-autriche/story/18675840

[6] Austria approves headscarf ban in primary schools: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/may/16/austria-approves-headscarf-ban-in-primary-schools

[7] Where in the world are the burka and niqab banned?: https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/652842/Burka-Niqab-Islamic-Face-veil-Ban-UK-Fine-France-Belgium-Netherlands-Europe-Muslim-dress

[8] Bulgaria bans full-face veils in public places: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-religion-burqa-bulgaria/bulgaria-bans-full-face-veils-in-public-places-idUSKCN1201FV

[9] Burqa bans: After Angela Merkel calls for prohibition on full veils, what is the situation in other European countries?: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/burqa-ban-niqab-veil-law-netherlands-france-uk-britain-germany-spain-belgium-bulgaria-switzerland-a7446246.html

[10] Burka bans: The countries where Muslim women can’t wear veils: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/women/life/burka-bans-the-countries-where-muslim-women-cant-wear-veils/

[11] Loi sur la laïcité de l’État: http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=5&file=2019C12F.PDF

[12] An Act respecting the laicity of the State: http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=5&file=2019C12A.PDF

[13] China bans burqas and ‘abnormal’ beards in Muslim province of Xinjiang: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/china-burqa-abnormal-beards-ban-muslim-province-xinjiang-veils-province-extremism-crackdown-freedom-a7657826.html

[14] The Islamic veil across Europe: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-13038095

[15] Le voile intégral interdit dans l’espace public au Danemark: http://www.lapresse.ca/international/europe/201805/31/01-5183917-le-voile-integral-interdit-dans-lespace-public-au-danemark.php

[16] Sorties scolaires : le Sénat vote pour l’interdiction du port du voile pour les mères accompagnatrices: https://www.publicsenat.fr/article/parlementaire/sorties-scolaires-le-senat-vote-pour-l-interdiction-du-port-du-voile-pour-les

[17] German parliament votes in favour of partial burqa ban: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/germany-burqa-ban-law-vote-favour-angela-merkel-islam-muslim-civil-servants-judges-military-a7706781.html

[18] German state bans burqa in schools and government buildings as part of ‘Christian values’: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/germany-burqa-ban-bavaria-veils-niqab-places-angela-merkel-joachim-herrmann-schools-universities-a7594026.html

[19] Morocco bans burqa over security concerns: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/morocco-bans-burqa-security-fears-bandit-a7520156.html

[20] Maroc : interdiction de la fabrication, la vente et le port de la burqa: https://www.algeriemondeinfos.com/2018/10/28/maroc-interdiction-de-fabrication-vente-port-de-burqa/

[21] Listen to what Muslim women in the Netherlands say about the Dutch burqa ban and you’ll realise why it won’t stop radicalisation: http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/burqa-ban-muslim-women-islam-dutch-netherlands-headscarf-veils-combat-terrorism-radicalisation-a7447646.html

[22] Dutch approve partial ban on burqa wearing in public: https://www.yahoo.com/news/dutch-approve-partial-ban-burqa-wearing-public-161916518.html

[23] Full veil banned in Niger over Boko Haram fears: https://mg.co.za/article/2015-07-30-full-veil-banned-in-key-niger-region-over-boko-haram-fears

[24] Why West Africa’s Muslim-majority states are banning the burqa: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/05/02/west-african-states-with-181-million-muslims-support-banning-the/

[25] Ecowas Leaders Seek to Ban Wearing of Hijabs (Full Face Veils): http://africansuntimes.com/2015/12/ecowas-leaders-seek-to-ban-wearing-of-hijabs-full-face-veils/

[26] Spain overturns Islamic face veil ban: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/europe/spain/9902827/Spain-overturns-Islamic-face-veil-ban.html

[27] Sri Lanka bans any form of face covering that will hinder the identification of a person under emergency regulations.: https://twitter.com/AdityaRajKaul/status/1122547539704598528/photo/1

[28] Genève interdit aux employés publics de porter des signes religieux: https://www.tvanouvelles.ca/2019/02/10/geneve-interdit-aux-employes-publics-de-porter-des-signes-religieux

[29] St-Gall devient le deuxième canton à interdire la burqa: https://www.lenouvelliste.ch/articles/suisse/st-gall-devient-le-deuxieme-canton-a-interdire-la-burqa-786560

[30] Interdire la burqa ? Un canton suisse vote massivement pour: https://francais.rt.com/international/54111-interdire-burqa-canton-suisse-vote-massivement-pour

[31] La présidence du gouvernement interdit l’entrée aux bâtiments publics aux personnes dont le visage serait couvert: https://www.huffpostmaghreb.com/entry/la-presidence-du-gouvernement-interdit-lentree-aux-batiments-publics-aux-personnes-dont-le-visage-serait-couvert_mg_5d1f49dce4b04c48141261a9

[32] La Tunisie interdit le port du niqab dans les établissements publics: https://www.francetvinfo.fr/monde/afrique/tunisie/la-tunisie-interdit-le-port-du-niqab-dans-les-etablissements-publics_3522849.html

[33] Why Turkey Lifted Its Ban on the Islamic Headscarf: https://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/10/131011-hijab-ban-turkey-islamic-headscarf-ataturk/

[34] New Muslim congresswoman will seek to allow religious headwear in the House: https://www.cnn.com/2018/11/19/politics/ilhan-omar-hijab-scarf-muslim-headwear-minnesota-representative-trnd/index.html

[35] Le voile désormais autorisé dans le Congrès américain: https://www.lapresse.ca/international/etats-unis/201811/19/01-5204823-le-voile-desormais-autorise-dans-le-congres-americain.php

[36] Quebec’s Secularism Bill: https://thehumanist.com/voices/rules_are_for_schmucks/rules-are-for-schmucks-quebecs-secularism-bill

[37] L’Égypte songe maintenant bannir la burqa: https://www.ayoyemonde.com/nouvelles/l-egypte-songe-maintenant-bannir-la-burqa

[38] Le maintien de l’ordre et le décorum: https://www.noscommunes.ca/MarleauMontpetit/DocumentViewer.aspx?Sec=Ch13&Seq=3&Language=F

[39] Rules of Order and Decorum: https://www.ourcommons.ca/MarleauMontpetit/DocumentViewer.aspx?Sec=Ch13&Seq=3&Language=E

[40] L’Égypte veut interdire le niqab dans les lieux publics: https://www.cnews.fr/monde/2016-03-09/legypte-veut-interdire-le-niqab-dans-les-lieux-publics-724574

[41] Do Burqa Bans Do More Harm Than Good?: https://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/entry/burqa-bans-do-more-harm-than-good_uk_5b62e265e4b08c2f0a5e1073

[42] Le directeur général des douanes rappelle que le port du voile est interdit selon la réglementation en vigueur: https://www.huffpostmaghreb.com/2014/11/11/douanes-voile-interdit_n_6138200.html

[43] Denmark has got it wrong. Yes, the burka is oppressive and ridiculous – but that’s still no reason to ban it: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/08/05/denmark-has-got-wrong-yes-burka-oppressive-ridiculous-still/

[44] Britain should ban the niqab: http://maryamnamazie.com/britain-should-ban-niqab/

[45] Neither Veil nor Submission: http://www.fitnah.org/eng/neither-veil-submission/

[46] Barcelona to ban veil in public buildings: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-spain-veil/barcelona-to-ban-veil-in-public-buildings-idUSTRE65D4K620100614

[47] Québec renonce une fois de plus à défendre sa loi sur la neutralité religieuse: https://www.ledevoir.com/politique/quebec/534329/quebec-renonce-une-fois-de-plus-a-defendre-sa-loi-sur-la-neutralite-religieuse

[48] EGYPT considers banning the burqa in crackdown against Islamic extremists: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-6366629/EGYPT-considers-banning-burqa-crackdown-against-Islamic-extremists.html

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